1912 erhielt er den Nobelpreis für Literatur. The most notable came with the premiere of Florian Geyer (published, 1896; translated, 1929) on 4 January 1896. In 1907 Hauptmann traveled to Greece. During these years, Hauptmann devoted much of his energy to nondramatic genres. At best, his prose output broadened understanding of how wide-ranging his talent was; even among the less distinguished novels there is great diversity. He also tried his hand at writing; his products-poems, an alliterative epic, and several dramatic fragments-all betray the then-fashionable obsession with the Germanic and the influence of the very writers against whom the naturalists soon took up arms. Im raschelnden Schilfe, liegt über dem Teiche. Jahrhundert, 2 (1940): 331–334, 337; “Das Märchen,” Die neue Rundschau, 52 (1941): 686–694; “Die Wiedertäufer,” Die neue Rundschau, 53 (1942): 488–494. But his efforts ended in failure in 1884, and six weeks of study at the Dresden Academy of Arts in the summer of that year likewise produced nothing. Gleich dem Märchen, welches nach Möglichkeit real zu sein versucht, suchte ich nun aber innerhalb des Märchenrahmens ebenfalls so viel mir möglich, real zu sein. Dramatically, this work leaves much to be desired; but it is an eloquent statement of Hauptmann’s humanity. Includes. A criticism made of virtually all of Hauptmann’s strongly realistic character dramas surfaced again in the case of Rose Bernd: that the play is too epic, that is, not “dramatic” enough. Život. He had tried several genres, and not totally without success. In short, these “studies,” by recounting “second for second,” became miniature, one-act dramas. . Die Ratten represents a reckoning both with the forces that made naturalism necessary and with the ultimate impotence of the naturalist as a reformer. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Hauptmanns Eltern lebten in Bad Salzbrunn und besaßen den Gasthof “Zur Krone” bereits in zweiter Generation. But while there are few figures in his works reminiscent of Margarete Hauptmann, Orloff recurs frequently in his plays and fiction–sometimes in a positive, sometimes in a negative light–even long after he had stopped seeing her. dem Winde befohlen! While he had artistic and popular success with his novellas and novels, Hauptmann achieved his broadest recognition as a playwright. His studies remained unsystematic and ended after a year. Juni 1946 in Agnetendorf (Agnieszków) in Schlesien) war ein deutscher Dramatiker und Schriftsteller. Thus, the characters are trapped in a closed, almost suffocating atmosphere, and the audience must watch for subtle gestures or chance words to gain insights into their various motives and intentions. In his diary he wrote on 29 November 1898: “Erst Menschen, hernach das Drama. Goethe adhered to J. J. Winckelmann’s concept of Greek culture and art as representative of “edle Einfalt und stille Größe” (noble simplicity and quiet grandeur). 1912 Nobel Prize in Literature Presentation Speech. Still, along with the relative achievements of Fasching and Bahnwärter Thiel, he had also published in 1885 the formally unremarkable epic poem Promethidenloos, about a disillusioned, Byronic character, and in 1888 Das bunte Buch, a collection of poems dating back to the previous decade. The tragedy, which premiered on 5 November 1898 in Berlin, was an immediate success there and in Paris, where André Antoine, founder of the “théâtre libre,” the model for the Freie Bühne, praised not only the presentation of the milieu but also the “clarity and sobriety” of the play. Gerhart Hauptmann by Warren R. Maurer (review) Gerhart Hauptmann by Warren R. Maurer (review) 1984-01-06 00:00:00 Book Reviews99 eine ganze Generation "verlustiert" habe, und betonte die Parallele zu den Gedichten des Verfassers der Galgenlieder: "Es ist aber auch zu hübsch: man lacht sich krumm, bewundert hinterher, ernster geworden, eine tiefe Lyrik, die nur … But the comedy ends with the official’s reiteration of his belief in her innocence and good character and his reassertion of the danger of the suspected “socialist.”. In fact, Hauptmann scarcely ever created a “hero” or “heroine” who might be interpreted as his spokesperson; at the same time, as he himself said, he never created a true “villain.”. Die Schreibweise seines Vornamens änderte Hauptmann später. Die Weber portrays the life of Silesian weavers in the days leading up to their revolt on 3 June 1844, but it was considered by its first audiences a dramatization of almost contemporary events. A relatively large amount of narrative prose followed, but, with the exception of a couple of novellas, it did little to enhance or even sustain Hauptmann’s reputation, which nonetheless remained that of Germany’s greatest writer. HAUPTMANN, Gerhart (Johann Robert) Nationality: German.Born: Ober-Salzbrunn, 15 November 1862.Education: A school in Breslau; studied sculpture at Royal College of Art, Breslau, 1880-82; also studied at University of Jena, 1882-83.Family: Married 1) Marie Thienemann in 1884 (divorced), three sons; 2) Margarete Marschalk in 1905, one son.Career: Sculptor in Rome, … The censor’s office, substantiating Hauptmann’s low opinion of public officials, allowed the play to be presented only because it was considered too boring to have a long run. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. By 1903 the naturalist style of acting had dominated the stages of Germany for several years, and Rose Bernd seemed to many critics an anachronism. Instead, they are means of portraying a character with a definite personality and sometimes quite distinct views. The books in this lot are hard-bound in tan cloth with gilt stamping to the upper covers and gilt and gray stamping to the spines, in dust jackets with soiling and edge-wear. Arbeits-, Wohn- und Schlafzimmer, Kreuzgang und Weinkeller, Wohndiele und Terrasse – das Sommerhaus Gerhart Hauptmanns ist im Originalzustand erhalten und lässt die Arbeits- und Alltagswelt des berühmten Dichters lebendig werden. In the same way, Hauptmann’s minor figures in Vor Sonnenuntergang represent an entire society’s role in bringing about the “sundown” of traditional forms of family relationships and cultural values. Paul Schlenther, one of the cofounders of the Freie Bühne and a close friend as well as first biographer of Hauptmann, commented that the overly pious members of the audience wanted to ascribe the play to the Social Democrats, while the Social Democrats found it too religious. Yet, there is more than thematic unity, for the play does have a hero: the weavers themselves as a collective. Vor Sonnenuntergang portrays the family conflicts that arise when Matthias Clausen, a dignified, cultured, and sensitive man of seventy, falls in love with his gardener’s niece, Inken Peters, fifty years his junior. One of his most popular plays and the first one to earn a substantial amount of money for Hauptmann, Die versunkene Glocke, which bears the subtitle Ein deutsches Märchendrama (a German Fairy-Tale Drama) and is presented in verse, was its author’s concession to bourgeois taste and to the fashion set by Maeterlinck; it is considered today to be a weak work. Grimmiger Treffendes dann in Zürich unter den Kranken des Burghölzli, der Kantonalirrenanstalt. Gerhart Hauptmann und Ida Orloff: Dokumentation einer dichterischen Leidenschaft (Berlin: Propyläen, 1969); Walter A. Reichart, “Gerhart Hauptmann and His British Friends: Documented in Some of Their Correspondence,” German Quarterly, 50 (November 1977): 424-451; Klaus Bohnen, “Briefwechsel zwischen Gerhart Hauptmann und Georg Brandes,” Jahrbuch der deutschen Schiller-Gesellschaft, 23 (1979), 55–68; Klaus W. Jonas, “Gerhart Hauptmann und Hans von Seeckt: Erinnerungen eines Sammlers und Bibliographen. Critics have condemned the language, the lack of dramatic qualities, and the naturalistic approach to the characters. When he went to Paris for the opening of Hanneles Himmelfahrt there, Marie Hauptmann left for America, where she stayed with Ploetz in Meriden, Connecticut. Hauptmann gained literary immortality through his depiction of flesh-and-blood characters from all classes and environments. Hauptmann had met Margarete Marschalk in 1889, when she was fourteen. Modern critics tend toward viewing the novel as a study in pathology. When it was publicly performed for the first time, Kaiser Wilhelm II canceled his loge at the Deutsches Theater. No critic has denied that the tetralogy represents a remarkable accomplishment for any playwright, especially for one in his eighties. Weitere Gedichte des Autors Gerhart Hauptmann (Infos zum Autor) Der alte Birnbaum; Mondscheinlerchen; Fertige Biographien und Interpretationen, Analysen oder Zusammenfassungen zu Werken des Autors Gerhart Hauptmann. In his second comedy Hauptmann expands the comic potential of naturalism beyond the depiction of individual characters. After spending the following days with her in Berlin, he returned to his wife and children, who had remained in Silesia. Juni 1946 in Agnieszków, deutsch: Agnetendorf in Niederschlesien) war ein deutscher Dramatiker und Schriftsteller.Er gilt als der bedeutendste deutsche Vertreter des Naturalismus, hat aber auch andere Stilrichtungen in sein Schaffen integriert. im Mondlicht baden; The protagonist of his epic poem is a modern flier from World War I who experiences much of the turmoil of the years immediately thereafter, and, as the “eternal German” who can be seen simultaneously as a fool and a Faust, eventually commits suicide. The purpose of all of these works was to show that Hamlet could not have been as passive and indecisive as he seems to be in Shakespeare’s play. The model for Matthias Clausen was Max Pinkus, a bibliophile and longtime friend of the author. The “heretic” in this novel is the young Catholic priest Francesco Velda, who succumbs to the beauty of Agata and to the pagan lifestyle of her family living in isolation from society. In the years between Rose Bernd and World War I, Hauptmann wrote another truly great work for the stage, a tragicomedy that perhaps remains his most “modern” play. When Oxford University awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1905, it confirmed that Hauptmann’s fame had become an international phenomenon. After recounting many details, he admits that he could never show the true depths of this misery in his play. Honorary doctorates from the German University in Prague in 1921 and Columbia University in 1932 show that his fame grew in foreign countries as well. Instead, the shift in influence has to be attributed to the inability of the writers there to develop the truly new and revolutionary approach to literature for which they had themselves been clamoring. In Phantom, (published as a book in 1923, after serial publication in the Berliner Illustrierte) Lorentz Labota, who has served a prison sentence, relates how he became a criminal. While Hauptmann’s attitudes and statements frequently contradict each other, on balance he is usually patriotic but not nationalistic or sycophantic toward the rulers. Geburtstag des Dichters (Stuttgart: Turmhaus-Druckerei, 1962). / Der Kauz ruft leise. Hauptmann concludes his play on an ironic note that leaves the impression that the weavers will triumph, but everyone in his audience knew that the real weavers were quickly defeated and forced back into their former life. Vergessen, vergeben, .”: Zur Bedeutung Gerhart Hauptmanns für unsere Zeit (Bonn: Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen, 1993); Warren R. Maurer, Gerhart Hauptmann (Boston: Twayne, 1982); Hans Mayer, Gerhart Hauptmann (Velber bei Hannover: Friedrich, 1972); Edward Mcinnes, German Social Drama 1840–1900: From Hebbel to Hauptmann (Stuttgart: Heinz, 1976); Philip Mellen, Gerhart Hauptmann and Utopia (Stuttgart: Heinz, 1976); Mellen, Gerhart Hauptmann: Religious Syncretism and Eastern Religions (Bern, Frankfurt am Main & New York: Peter Lang, 1984); Gerdt Oberembt, Gerhart Hauptmann: Der Biberpelz (Paderborn, Munich, Vienna & Zurich: Schöningh, 1987); Oberembt, Grofsstadt, Landschaft, Augenblick: Über die Tradition von Motiven im Werk Gerhart Hauptmanns (Berlin: Schmidt, 1999); John Osborne, The Naturalist Drama in Germany (Manchester: Manchester University Press / Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1971); Jill Perkins, Joyce and Hauptmann: Before Sunrise (San Marino, Cal. The second version was performed by the Freie Bühne on 26 February 1893 and, after a court trial, elsewhere. PLAY PRODUCTIONS: Vor Sonnenaufgang, Berlin, Lessingtheater, 20 October 1889; Das Friedensfest, Berlin, Ostendtheater, 1 June 1890; Einsame Menschen, Berlin, Residenztheater, 11 January 1891; Kollege Crampton, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 16 January 1892; Die Weber, Berlin, Neues Theater, 26 February 1893; Hanneles Himmelfahrt, Berlin, Königliches Schauspielhaus, 14 September 1893; Der Biberpelz, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 21 September 1893; Florian Geyer, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 4 January 1896; Die versunkene Glocke, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 2 December 1896; Fuhrmann Henschel, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 5 November 1898; Schluck und Jau, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 3 February 1900; Michael Kramer, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 21 December 1900; Der rote Hahn, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 27 November 1901; Der arme Heinrich, Vienna, Hofburgtheater, 29 November 1902; Rose Bernd, Berlin, Deutsches Theater, 31 October 1903; Elga, Berlin, Lessingtheater, 4 March 1905; Und Pippa tanzt! November 1962, edited by Hass, Martin Machatzke, and W. Bungies, 11 volumes (Frankfurt am Main & Berlin: Propyläen, 1962–1974); Italienische Reise: Tagebuchaufzeichnungen, edited by Machatzke (Berlin: Propyläen, 1976); Diarium 1917 bis 1933, edited by Machatzke (Berlin: Propyläen, 1980); Notix-Kalender 1889 bis 1891, edited by Machatzke (Frankfurt am Main, Berlin & Vienna: Propyläen, 1982); Tagebuch 1892 bis 1894, edited by Machatzke (Frankfurt am Main, Berlin & Vienna: Propyläen, 1985); Tagebucher 1897–1905, edited by Machatzke (Frankfurt am Main: Propyläen, 1987). auf nächtigen Pfaden! Yet, the lack of a formal education left its mark on Hauptmann, who developed typically autodidactic strengths and weaknesses: great learning and many allusions in his works to both well-known and obscure subjects that serve primarily intuitive associations, not a systematic, logical approach. Hauptmann completed his second novel, Atlantis, in the winter of 1911–1912, and it appeared soon afterward in serial form in the newspaper Berliner Tageblatt. But Hauptmann’s next stage of work was in undeniable harmony with such ideals as well as with his own convictions. What distinguishes Vor Sonnenaufgang from Ibsen’s plays is, first, the frankness and crassness with which sexuality and other manifestations of decadence and moral corruption are presented, as when Helene’s drunken father grasps her in a lustful manner. > Aufzeichnungen. But Hauptmann’s Iphigenia, although she sacrifices herself to atone for the crimes committed by the house of Atreus, bears little resemblance to the Goethean personification of the all-too-human. Stirner, Max At first glance, the play seems to consist of five individual one-act dramas, each with a different locale and with only occasionally recurring characters. The long genesis produced a play that relies more on characterization and the bucolic than on Homer, from whom Hauptmann takes only the plot. Er gilt als der bedeutendste deutsche Vertreter des Naturalismus, hat aber auch andere Stilrichtungen in sein Schaffen integriert. Neue Gedichte 7.) In his novella Mann proves himself to be especially adept in evoking the atmosphere that breeds a Cipolla and allows him to succeed. Hauptmann In later years many critics saw this work as a turning point in Hauptmann’s career, and one not in the right direction. At the end of the play the action returns to the real world, and the audience learns that Hannele has died. He went back to Germany only to return soon afterward to Rome, where he took up residence as a sculptor. Neither Hassenreuter nor Spitta notices that Frau John’s plight has all the qualities of a tragedy in both the naturalistic and the classical senses, and they remain as ludicrous in their theoretical arguments as Frau John remains tragic in her real life. Gedichtinterpretationen Der Mond, der bleiche, It draws heavily on experiences acquired during his visit to Zurich in 1888 and, like Bahnwärter Thiel, has its roots in Büchner’s novella Lenz (1839). Erzählendes. Many contemporary naturalists in Germany had been calling for “truth” rather than beauty, and Hauptmann’s play seems to respond to this demand. His remaining in Germany, his “inner emigration,” subjected him to attacks from exiles such as his old friend Kerr. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID-19) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this WorldCat.org search.OCLC’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle … Gedichte des Naturalismus KARL BLEIBTREU (1859–1928) Schnellzug Das Dampfroß dröhnend schnaubte Voran in tiefer Nacht. Anna.--12.bd. This entry has been expanded by Cowen from his Hauptmann entry in DLB 118: Twentieth-Century German Dramatists, 1889–1918. The year 1889 was a turning point in the development of naturalism and also in Hauptmann’s career. During the 1920s, when–if not verifiably because–his new dramas were encountering little popular enthusiasm, Hauptmann returned to the verse epic. Instead, it came from his participation as a juror from 15 to 17 April 1903 at the trial of a waitress accused of murdering her child. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}). Sein Vater Robert änderte den Namen seines Gasthofs, dem Trend der Zeit folgend in “Zur preuß… I 1922 skreiv han pamfletten Russland und die Welt saman med Fridtjof Nansen og Maksim Gorkij. But he published only one other nondramatic work for almost two decades: the novella Der Apostel (The Apostle), which appeared in the periodical Moderne Dichtung in 1890 and as a book in 1892. Hauptmann’s first six plays conform to the general goal of naturalism: to show people as products of their heredity and milieu. The news of his wife’s suicide causes him to suffer a breakdown; but he regains his health with the help of the sculptress Eva Burns, who subsequently accompanies him back to Germany. But in Atlantis he draws exclusively on scarcely disguised, painfully remembered events and persons in his own life (friends, as well as later works, revealed that his personal difficulties with his first wife had left Hauptmann with feelings of guilt that lasted for the rest of his life). One can also demonstrate that Hauptmann was most interested in the Greek legend in itself, not as a vehicle for expressing essentially modern views. In the last year of the war Hauptmann, fearing a police search, had the manuscript burned. Wir haben in unserem Hausaufgaben- und Referate-Archiv weitere Informationen zu Gerhart Hauptmann … His efforts in art school resulted in failure and expulsion. But what was revolutionary in Holz’s and Schlaf’s stories, which they called “studies,” was also what propelled the naturalists in general toward the stage. He later recorded in “Zweites Vierteljahrhundert” (Second Quarter-Century), the unpublished continuation of Das Abenteuer meiner Jugend, his impressions of what he saw on these visits: Der Menschheit ganzer Jammer, wie man sagt, faßte mich nicht zum ersten Male an. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In the second act the audience shares in Hannele’s dream, in which Christ appears looking like her schoolteacher, and Hannele is prepared by angels for her wedding with him. Fuhrmann Henschel portrays, against the background of the industrial and economic changes of the contemporary world, the unhappy marriage of a man to his former maid, a sexually active, domineering woman, after he promises his dying first wife that he will not marry the maid. In fact, its almost allegorical tendencies mark it as a forerunner of expressionist drama. A ban by the censor was not in itself remarkable; bans were often deliberately sought by the naturalists, who were intent on shocking contemporary audiences. Neue Gedichte: German poetry: 1946 : Mignon: German: 1947 : Die Fisternisse: German: 1947 : Agamemnons Tod/Elektra: German: 1948 : Dramatic Works, vol 8: Poetic Dramas [originally published/performed in German in ?] 1952) - TV film 1959, dir. He also encountered young writers such as Max Kretzer (later called the “Berlin Zola”); Wilhelm Bölsche, whose Die naturwissenschaftlichen Grundlagen der Poesie (1887, The Scientific Foundations of Literature) became one of the most important manifestos of German naturalism; and Bruno Wille, a strong advocate of the Social Democratic Party. He comes to recognize that the power of nature, Eros, and the Dionysian pleasures are greater than religious dogma. Hauptmann did not publish a single artistic work that could be called an homage to the new masters. Also in 1887 Hauptmann wrote his first two successful novellas. zieh' ich spiegelnde Gleise. GERHART JOHANN ROBERT HAUPTMANNwurde am 15. Tragödie heiβt: Angst, Not, Gefahr, Pein, Qual, Marter, heiβt Tücke, Verbrechen, Niedertracht, heiβt Mord, Blutgier, Blutschande, Schlächterei” (Tragedy means: friendship, persecution, hate and love as existential passion! Although the theoretical discussions of this club-like those of the others springing up all over Berlin at that time-achieved little more than to keep alive the younger generation’s demand for a new, modern, realistic literature, Hauptmann made an outstanding contribution befitting his own nontheoretical, practice-oriented thinking: he read to the members from the little-known works of Georg Büchner, one of the most important precursors of naturalism and subsequent literary movements such as expressionism and the theater of the absurd. Alfred Loth, a journalist with an education in sociology and economics and an impassioned believer in social justice, abstinence, and the power of heredity, arrives at the farm of the Krause family, which has suddenly become wealthy through the discovery of coal and the exploitation of the other residents of the area. But the focus in the first comedy remained relatively narrow, and at the end the audience questions only the protagonist’s ability to fulfill his good resolutions, not the social and political background. Hauptmann had begun his preliminary studies in 1891, while he was working on Die Weber; as in the case of Die Weber he went to the areas concerned, this time southern Germany. In his banquet speech in Stockholm, his mention of world peace as a shared goal could be dismissed as a strictly formulaic acknowledgment of Alfred Nobel’s ideals. He accommodated it to his own changing views of human existence and incorporated into it elements of such subsequent developments as neo-Romanticism, symbolism, Jugendstil (art nouveau), and expressionism. When dramatist Gerhart Hauptmann became the thirteenth recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1912, only two of his predecessors (Rudyard Kipling in 1907 and Maurice Maeterlinck in 1911) had received this recognition at an earlier age. Loth falls in love with Helene, Hoffmann’s sister-in-law, who is apparently the sole uncorrupted member of the household. Two semesters at the University of Berlin in 1884 and 1885 provided no academic inspiration; thereafter, Hauptmann turned once and for all to creative writing. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Er wurde auf den Namen Gerhard Johann Robert getauft. Nonetheless, Hauptmann’s enduring fame depends primarily on the plays written by 1906. In the fall of that year Marie Hauptmann and the children moved into a house in Dresden that Hauptmann had built for them, and he moved with Marschalk into Wiesenstein, a house he had constructed for himself and his new family in Agnetendorf. Hauptmann soon fell in love with the sister of Max Marschalk, the composer of the music for Hanneles Himmelfahrt and later for more of Hauptmann’s works. Clausen quotes Goethe, has named his children after Goethe or Goethe’s characters or friends, and is celebrating his seventieth birthday on the hundredth anniversary of Goethe’s death. More often than any other German writer since Goethe, he had already been praised, honored, and imitated by his contemporaries, a fact substantiated by the widespread celebrations of his fiftieth birthday, the most notable one taking place in November in Berlin and attended by many prominent literary figures. in eigenen Kreisen! As a naturalist, Hauptmann always strove for a rigorously accurate phonetic reproduction of linguistic peculiarities and dialects, which allowed his audience to pinpoint the educational and social level and regional background of a character. The result, Festspiel in deutschen Reimen (1913, Festival Performance in German Rhymes; translated as Commemoration Masque, 1917), applied not the expected blind reverence but a note of irony toward the revered figures of German history and caused a scandal. At the end of World War I he published Der Ketzer von Soana (1918; translated as The Heretic of Soana, 1923), which some critics consider his best prose work. - But a copy found its way to the United States, where it was published in 1947 by Walter A. Reichart; it was first performed in 1952. Art as life, not as art or as a vehicle for his own philosophical notions, remained his strength. Second, Hauptmann incorporates working-class and rural characters and lets them speak in dialect, a device he also uses with the Krause family to reveal how thin the veneer of culture acquired through wealth is. The sequel enjoyed neither the favorable critical reception nor the popularity of the original; but the consistency of thought and character connecting the two plays was noted by Bertolt Brecht, who tried to mold them into a single drama in his stage production Biberpelz und Roter Hahn (1951). Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann war ein deutscher Dramatiker und Schriftsteller. Almost without exception they take great liberties with his texts. Auf spiegelndem Teiche Why did I flop in 1911 when confronted by Die Ratten?). Stirner, Max Some of the late novellas, however, have retained a readership. Encyclopedia.com. Many contemporaries heard echoes in the play of the so-called fate tragedies of the early nineteenth century. . COVID-19 Resources. The main parallels to King Lear stem from the opposition of Clausen’s sons and daughters to this union, which they oppose for financial reasons. To this day the three questions raised by the initial critics are still being contested: How good and appropriate is the verse? Hauptmann had first attempted to express himself artistically as a sculptor. He made only minor corrections when it was published as a book in 1912. Almost every character, even those speaking only a few lines, comes across as an individual. This outcome seems to be consistent with Goethe’s view that in his Iphigenie auf Tauris pure humanity atones for all human feelings. Always one step ahead of other characters and able to manipulate them, Frau Wolff appears as the rogue figure of many traditional comedies. Not only did he achieve his first triumphs with them, but he continued to succeed in writing such dramas-interspersed with works in other genres and modes-long after radical realism had ceased to be in fashion. . Das Gedicht besteht aus 24 Versen mit insgesamt 6 Strophen und umfasst dabei 89 Worte. "Hauptmann, Gerhart (15 November 1862 - 6 June 1946) Weswegen bin ich 1911 vor diesen Ratten durchgefallen?” (Criticism is self-criticism. Nobel Prize Laureates in Literature, Part 2. . Loth’s fanaticism, coupled with his inability to effect any social reform, removes him from the conventional role of the playwright’s spokesman. Yet, the lengthiest of the verse epics, Des groβen Kampffliegers, Landfahrers, Gauklers und Magiers Till Eulenspiegel Abenteuer, Streiche, Gaukelein, Gesichte und Träume (1928, The Adventures, Pranks, Tricks, Visions and Dreams of the Great Combat Pilot, Vagabond, Trickster, and Magician Till Eulenspiegel) deserves mention, if only because its content is so timely but its form so remarkable. The reconciliation did not last long; but Marie Hauptmann refused to give the playwright a divorce, even though Marschalk gave birth to Hauptmann’s son Benvenuto on 1 June 1900. The weavers’ revolt had been crushed by government troops after only a few days, and their situation had not changed by 1891, when Hauptmann completed the first version of his play. The work launched not only a series of imitations but also a frenzied conflict between conservative forces and the naturalists. Then, almost eighty years old, he made one last great effort as a dramatist.

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